The Effect of Club Social Responsibility on Customer Citizenship Behavior with the Mediating Role of Brand Equity

Document Type : Original Article


1 Assistant Professor of Sports Management, University of Birjand, Birjand. Iran

2 Associate Professor in sport management, University of Birjand, Khorasan Jonobi, Iran

3 Master student in sport management, University of Birjand, Khorasan Jonobi, Iran



Purpose: The purpose of this research was to investigate the role of the social responsibility of clubs on customer citizenship behavior through the mediation of brand value.


The method of this research is a descriptive survey and the statistical population of this research is all the customers of South Khorasan fitness clubs. Due to the uncertainty of their exact number, the method of 5 to 15 times the number of questionnaire items was used to determine the sample size. After collecting the questionnaires (370 questionnaires), 340 questionnaires were analyzed. The instruments of this research included three questionnaires: the social responsibility questionnaire by Bakhshandeh et al. (2015), the citizenship behavior questionnaire by Gruth (2005) and the special brand value questionnaire by Azimzadeh and Mohammadi (2015). To analyze the data and the relationships between the variables, Spss24 and Amos24 software were used.

Results: The results showed that there is a significant relationship between the social responsibility of fitness clubs the citizenship behavior of customers (r=0.598) and brand value (r=0.777). Also, there is a significant relationship between brand equity and customer citizenship behavior (r=0.870). Finally, the results showed that the social responsibility of clubs has a positive and significant effect on customer citizenship behavior through the mediation of the brand equity variable (r=0.630).

Conclusion: In light of the research's conclusions, managers of sports clubs can make significant progress in appealing to citizens by developing and putting into practice social responsibility and branding plans that foster positive customer relations on all fronts.


  • Abedi Samakosh, M., & Kalate Seyfari, M. (2017). The Study of the Role of Brand Equity in Customer Citizenship Behavior in Sport Clubs of Mazandaran Province. Journal of Sport Management, 9(2), 343-358.
  • Ahn, T. H., & Park, B. G. (2019). The effects of corporate social responsibility on company image and customer citizenship behavior: Focused on Japanese students. Journal of Digital Convergence, 17(6), 185-192.
  • Ahn, Y. J., Hyun, S. S., & Kim, I. (2016). City residents’ perception of MICE city brand orientation and their brand citizenship behavior: A case study of Busan, South Korea. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 21(3), 328-353.
  • Alakkas, A. A., Paul, M., Nabi, M. K., & Khan, M. A. (2022). Corporate Social Responsibility and Firm-Based Brand Equity: The Moderating Effect of Marketing Communication and Brand Identity. Sustainability, 14(10), 6033.
  • Amoako, K., & Boateng, E. (2022). Analysis of the effectiveness of Corporate Social Responsibility in brand marketing with AAKER Brand Equity and Daisy Wheel Models. Technium Soc. Sci. J., 30, 484.
  • Bahreini, M., Ziyai, A.R (2011). Presenting a model to identify and evaluate the effect of sports financial support on the value of brand name and brand, Business Reviews, 55, 26-36. (persian)
  • Bhattacharya, C.B., & Sen, S. (2004). Doing Better at Doing Good: When, Why and How Consumers Respond to Corporate Social Initiatives. California Management Review, 47(1), 9-24.
  • CAI, W. (2022). Fitness Club Social Responsibility Stimulates Consumer Citizenship Behavior, an Intermediary Model of Satisfaction and Trust. Frontiers in Economics and Management, 3(2), 578-584.
  • Crane, A., McWilliams, A., Matten, D., Moon, J., & Siegel, D.S. (2008). The Oxford Handbook of Corporate Social Responsibility, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, 3-15.
  • Ellen, P., Webb, D.J., & Mohr, L.A. (2006). Building Corporate Associations: Consumer Attributions for Corporate Socially Responsible Programs. Academy of Marketing Science, 34(2), 147-157.
  • Esmaeilpour, M., Barjoei, s. (2016). The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility and Image on Brand Equity. Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal, 8(3), 55-66.
  • Farquhar, P. H. (1989). Managing brand equity. Marketing research, 1(3).
  • Fatma, M., Khan, I., Kumar, V., & Srivastava, A. K. (2022). Corporate social responsibility and customer-citizenship behaviors: the role of customer–company identification. European Business Review, (ahead-of-print).
  • Ferraz, S. B. (2018). Customers as fellows: analyzing customer citizenship behavior in services marketing (Doctoral dissertation, Universidad de São Paulo).
  • Filizöz, B., Fişne, and M. (2011), Corporate Social Responsibility: a study of striking corporate social responsibility practices in sport management. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 24, 1405-1417.
  • Forgas, J. P. (1995). Mood and judgment: the affect infusion model (AIM). Psychological bulletin, 117(1), 39.
  • Ghayor, S. M., Reghhi, M., Walizadeh Moghadam, T., Raees Al Sadati, S. F. (2018). The relationship between social responsibility and moral reputation and special value of the brand; Analysis of the mediating role of trust, ethics in science and technology, 14(2), 127-134. (persian)
  • Górska-Warsewicz, H., Dębski, M., Fabuš, M., & Kováč, M. (2021). Green brand equity—Empirical experience from a systematic literature review. Sustainability, 13(20), 11130.
  • Guzmán, F., Davis, D. (2017). The impact of corporate social responsibility on brand equity: consumer responses to two types of fit, Journal of Product & Brand Management, 26(5), 435-446.
  • Hamdi, K., Karmi, N. (2014). The relationship between the roles of employees in encouraging customer citizenship behaviors, Journal of Marketing Management, 23, 41-58.
  • Hatami, S., Aghaei, N., Poursoltani Zarandi, H., Akbari Yazdi, H. (2019). The mediating role of social responsibility in the relationship between the professional ethics of managers and the citizenship behavior of football fans. Organizational behavior management studies in sports, 5(1), 89-98. (persian)
  • Hosseinzadeh, S. (2015). Investigating the effect of ethical sales behavior on customer loyalty with the mediating role of relational commitment, Sports Management Journal, 4, 105-97. (persian)
  • Hwang, J., Cho, S. B., & Kim, W. (2019). Philanthropic corporate social responsibility, consumer attitudes, brand preference, and customer citizenship behavior: Older adult employment as a moderator. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 47(7), 1-10.
  • Khodadad Hosseini, H., Samii, N., Ahmadi, P. (2017). The impact of social media marketing on consumer behavior, examining the role of brand equity, brand relationship quality and brand attitude. Kurdistan University Management Scientific Journal, 1, 59-37. (persian)
  • Kim, K. H., Kim, K. S., Kim, D. Y., Kim, J. H., & Kang, S. H. (2008). Brand equity in hospital marketing. Journal of business research, 1(61), 75-82.
  • Kim, S., & Manoli, A. E. (2022). Building team brand equity through perceived CSR: the mediating role of dual identification. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 30(3), 281-295.
  • Lai, C.-S.; Chiu, C.-J.; Yang, C.-F. & Pai, D.-C. (2010). the Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility on Brand Performance: The Mediating Effect of Industrial Brand Equity and Corporate Journal of Business Ethics, 14(4), 457-469.
  • Liao, F., Wei, Q., Li, A., & Yang, J. (2023). Link Virtual Community Interaction and Citizenship Behavior of Fitness Club Customers: The Role of Psychological Empowerment and Sense of Community. Sustainability, 15(3), 2455.
  • Ma, S. C., & Kaplanidou, K. (2021). How Corporate Social Responsibility and Social Identities Lead to Corporate Brand Equity: An Evaluation in the Context of Sport Teams as Brand Extensions. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 30(1).
  • Mahmood, A., & Bashir, J. (2020). How does corporate social responsibility transform brand reputation into brand equity? Economic and noneconomic perspectives of CSR. International Journal of Engineering Business Management, 12, 1847979020927547.
  • Mensah, D. R., Yensu, J., Atuilik, D. A., (2017). Building Brand Equity through the Influence of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): A Case Study of Hollard Insurance- Kumasi. Journal of Management Research, 9(1), 145- 163.
  • Muniz, F., Guzmán, F., Paswan, A. K., & Crawford, H. J. (2019). The immediate effect of corporate social responsibility on consumer-based brand equity. Journal of Product & Brand Management.
  • Nejhad Sajadi, S. A. (2016). The Impact of Clubs’ Social Responsibility on Citizenship Behavior of Iran’s Football Premier League Teams’ Fans. International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies, 2016, 3.
  • Nguyen & Pervan (2020). Retailer corporate social responsibility and consumer citizenship behavior: The mediating roles of perceived consumer effectiveness and consumer trust. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 55, 102082.
  • Nyadzayo, M. W., Matanda, M. J., & Ewing, M. T. (2015). The impact of franchisor support, brand commitment, brand citizenship behavior, and franchisee experience on franchisee-perceived brand image. Journal of Business Research, 68(9), 1886-1894.
  • Pedeliento, G., Andreini, D., Bergamaschi, M., & Salo, J. (2016). Brand and product attachment in an industrial context: The effects on brand loyalty. Industrial Marketing Management, 53, 194-206.
  • Ponnusamy, G. (2015). Customers as volunteers? E-customer citizenship behavior and its antecedents. Information management and business review, 7(3), 50-58.
  • Raza, M., Salleh, S., Tariq, B., Altayyar, R., & Shaari, H. (2020). Investigating the effects of customer-based brand equity on turnover intentions with mediating effect of customer citizenship behavior. Management Science Letters, 10(2), 279-286.
  • Rundle-Thiele, S., Ball, K., & Gillespie, M. (2008). Raising The Bar: From Corporate Social Responsibility to Corporate Social Performance. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 25 (4), 245–253.
  • Soliman, S., & Saad, S. (2021). Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Employee Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Egyptian Hotels. Journal of Association of Arab Universities for Tourism and Hospitality, 20(1), 220-235.
  • Walker, M. B., Kent, A. (2009). Research and reviews do fans care? Assessing the influence of corporate social responsibility on consumer attitudes in the sport industry. Journal of Sport Management, 23(2), 743-769.
  • Wang, S., Liao, Y. K., Wu, W. Y., & Le, K. B. H. (2021). The Role of Corporate Social Responsibility Perceptions in Brand Equity, Brand Credibility, Brand Reputation, and Purchase Intentions. Sustainability, 13(21), 11975.
  • Yang, J., & Basile, K. (2018). The impact of corporate social responsibility on brand equity. Marketing Intelligence & Planning.
  • Zahari, A. R., Esa, E., Rajadurai, J., Azizan, N. A., & Muhamad Tamyez, P. F. (2020). The effect of corporate social responsibility practices on brand equity: An examination of malaysia's top 100 brands. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 7(2), 271-280.
  • Zhang, J., Jiang, Y., Shabbir, R., & Du, M. (2014). “Building industrial brand equity by leveraging firm capabilities and co-creating value with customers”. Industrial Marketing Management, 38, 11-17.